Readers who wish to know more should consult more advanced texts or seek advice from a medical statistician Cross sectional studies A cross sectional study measures the prevalence of health outcomes or determinants of health, or both, in a population at a point in time or over a short period.
For example, if the case-fatality due to AD is modified by smoking status, smokers will be less likely to be identified as prevalent cases in case—control studies. In case-control studies where cases are hospital based, it is common to recruit controls from the hospital population. Therefore, the ideal control group would comprise a random sample from the general population that gave rise to the cases.
Most of the cases in case—control studies were identified from dementia clinics or through hospital records. A discordant pair occurs when the exposure status of case is different than the exposure status of the control.
Case-controls can provide fast results and they are cheaper to perform than most other studies. If the prevalence of exposure is more common among cases than controls, it may be a risk factor for the outcome under investigation.
Resource text Case-control studies start with the identification of a group of cases individuals with a particular health outcome in a given population and a group of controls individuals without the health outcome to be included in the study. Analysis[ edit ] Case—control studies were initially analyzed by testing whether or not there were significant differences between the proportion of exposed subjects among cases and controls.
The investigator then determines whether cases and controls were exposed or not exposed to the risk factor. The proxy type was usually not matched in the cases and controls, which could result in odds ratios biased either toward or away from the null value of 1.
Prospective cohort studies are more common. The "Would" Criterion Epidemiologists sometimes use the "would" criterion" to test for the possibility of selection bias; they ask "If a control had had the disease, would they have been likely to be enrolled as a case? Many residents are not home, but they persist and eventually enroll enough controls.
Other times, controls might have been identified from people living in the same neighborhoods as the cases. The "Would" Criterion Epidemiologists sometimes use the "would" criterion" to test for the possibility of selection bias; they ask "If a control had had the disease, would they have been likely to be enrolled as a case?
This can suggest associations between the risk factor and development of the disease in question, although no definitive causality can be drawn.
That is, if there is no true association between exposure and disease, the cases and controls should have the same distribution of exposure. The true risk might therefore be expected to lie somewhere between estimates obtained with the two different designs.
Bias may arise because of selection into or out of the study population.
As a result, both exposed and unexposed groups should be recruited from the same source population. This type of reanalysis is useful in increasing the power to observe significant associations that are not evident in individual studies, particularly for uncommon exposures.
This section introduces you to basic concepts, application and strengths of case-control study. An observational study is a study in which subjects are not randomized to the exposed or unexposed groups, rather the subjects are observed in order to determine both their exposure and their outcome status and the exposure status is thus not determined by the researcher.
Advantages and disadvantages of case-control studies. For example, case—control studies suggested that cigarette smoking, a risk factor for stroke, might be inversely related to AD.
Various methods can be used to ascertain exposure status.Selection bias occurs in case-control studies when cases and/or controls are selected on criteria related to the exposure of interest, i.e. they are selected differentially on the basis of their exposure status or there may be differences in reporting of exposure status between cases and controls.
The above study was a population based case-control study, with all babies born with a cleft lip in Norway between and identified as cases and with a sample of controls selected at random from the Norwegian medical birth registry for the same period.
Case Control Study Definition A study that compares patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls), and looks back retrospectively to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the disease.
A case–control study (also known as case–referent study) is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on.
Case-control study. Case-control studies start with the outcome of interest, for example, a disease, and then look backward in time to detect possible causes or risk factors for that disease. In a large and carefully controlled Swedish study, their use invites information bias.
Case proxies may either overreport or underreport past. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page.
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